Photograph of a close-up of juniper (Juniperus) leaves and berries, ca.1920. The leaves are thick needle-like leaves.; "This group consists of evergreen shrubs and trees that are found wild throughout Europe, North America, Asia, the West Indies, Canary Islands, and eastern Africa. Some are hardy, some are small enough for the rock garden, some are good foundation plants, and some grow into trees of medium size. Junipers, as they are commonly called, are divided into two categories based on the kind of leaves they produce. The mature trees either has scale-like, leaves closely pressed against the branch, or needle-like, spreading leaves that are arranged loosely on the branch. The leaves are dark bluish-green and they stay on the branches for five or six years. The dark blue cones are small (one-quarter-inch diameter) and berry-like, each containing one or more hard seeds. The Junipers have other common names including Savin and Red Cedar, but the tree is really a Juniper and not a true Cedar. Junipers grow from 30 to 40 feet high with a diameter of 1 to 2 feet or more. The wood of the Junipers is fragrant and very durable. It is often used as fencing, but is of value for more important purposes. The wood of J. virginiana is sometimes called Pencil Cedar because its wood is used for making lead pencils. In the south of France, the wood of J. Oxycedrus is distilled for medicinal oil it contains. The oil is called 'Oil of cade', and it is used in the treatment of skin diseases." -- unknown author.