Photograph of Freemont pass in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles, ca.1900-1950. Two large rock faces, lined to either side by shrubs and other low-growing vegetation, create a narrow passageway through which the cleared road must pass. Telephone poles are visible to the right. Photoprint reads "Beale's Cut. Pass cut by Beale from San Fernando Valley to Newhall". The following are transcriptions of memos regarding the pass:; Memo by Eugene Plummer, [s.d.]: "Fremont crossed into the San Fernando Valley coming south from Santa Barbara by the Santa Susana pass and in the San Fernando Valley, came to the home of Geronimo Lopez. (This site is now under Chatsworth lake.) he there inquired where he could encamp his men, preparatory to engaging the Californians from Los Angeles. Lopez directed him to the place of Mariano de la Luz Verdugo. This is now the site of Universal City--the place being marked by the adobe chapel at Universal City."; Memo per Plummer in regard to the Newhall Cut between Newhall and San Fernando, March 26, 1937: "This pass is marked as the Fremont Pass. Plummer says that Fremont never came into the San Fernando Valley by this route but over the Santa Susana. This cut was made in the 1860's by Nadeau, to accomodaate freighting to north from Los Angeles and was operated as a toll road. The toll road was controlled by a man named Cummings, and Plummer relates that Cummings was fond of Liquor but could not 'hold his liquor'. On one occasion, Plummer and others wished to drive a herd of cattle through the pass and to avoid paying the toll charges. They sent a man ahead who treated Cummings to 7 or 8 drinks of brandy till he was 'out', and then they drove the cattle through the pass without paying a toll."