Photograph of demonstrators participating in a Civil Rights Congress-sponsored protest march in downtown Los Angeles. The woman in the foreground, holding the sign reading "Civil Rights Congress Defends Your Rights" is Anne Shore, national executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress. The demonstrators are marching to denounce the Smith Act, and to support 12 Communists who were indicted under the Act. In 1948, a federal grand jury indicted the 12 for conspiring to subvert the government. The indictment listed the acts of subversion as: organizing a political party dedicated to Marxism-Leninism; promoting Marxism-Leninism in publications; and establishing schools to teach the need to overthrow the government by force or violence. Eleven of the 12 were tried in the U.S. District Courthouse in Foley Square, New York City; all were convicted and sentenced to serve prison terms. Defendants appealed their convictions, but the U.S. Supreme Court in 1951 upheld the trial court's decision.
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