CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN
ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION,OR PROHIBITING THE FREE
EXFJiCISE THEREOF; OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF
SBLdCH/ORO^TH&KPR&SS.ORTEE PEOPLE PEACE/^LY
Photograph of 10 members of the Los Angeles 21 standing behind a sign with the text of the First Amendment. The people in the lineup are, from left, attorney John McTernan and defendants Delphine Smith, Phil Bock, Miriam Sherman, Frank Alexander, Lillian Doran, Harry Daniels, Iris Noble, Ben Dobbs, Dorothy Forrest and Henry Steinberg. The photograph was taken at a rally in support of the defendants that was held in the Embassy Auditorium on Sunday, Nov. 9, 1948. Ten individuals were subponened by a federal grand jury on Oct. 25, 1948, and asked to discuss their activities in the Communist Party. People called before the grand jury could name other members of the Communist Party, or they could refuse to testify; if they refused, they were cited for contempt and sent to jail. The 10 refused to testify or to answer on the grounds of self-incrimination, and were sent to jail for contempt of court. Eventually, another 11 individuals were also called to testify; they also refused, were cited with contempt, and sentenced to jail. The Civil Rights Congress and other defenders of civil liberties organized protest rallies and waged a legal battle to release the Los Angeles 21 on bail.
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