Photograph of three members of the Civil Rights Congress Bail Fund smiling as they receive funds needed to release the "New York 12" from prison.The members are, from left, Anne Shore, Lee Bachelis and Max Hittleman. In 1948, 12 members of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. were indicted under the Smith Act, which made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of any U.S. government. Eleven of the 12 defendants were tried in 1949, found guilty and sentenced to prison. The Civil Rights Congress Bail Fund organized a national campaign to raise the money needed to release the defendants on bail.
Researchers may make single copies of images solely for the purpose of private study. Copies for any other purpose must be requested in writing from the director of Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research at the address or e-mail given (phone (323) 759-6063; fax (323) 759-2252). When the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research gives permission for publication, it is as the owner of the physical item and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained. USC may provide high-resolution images and/or prints for purposes other than private study only with written permission from the Southern California Library.